18 i, art. 21. In the United States, President Obama`s administration considers the Paris Agreement to be a presidential executive agreement for the implementation of the Convention and that it is not necessary to ratify it by the Senate. The main international agreements on climate change are below. The full text of the contract is linked, as is the UN treaty website, which contains details on participants and key data. In addition, countries are working “to reach a global peak in greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible.” The deal has been described as an incentive and driver for the sale of fossil fuels.   The Paris Agreement has a bottom-up structure, unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top-down” and characterized by international standards and objectives that states must implement.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets commitment targets that have the force of res judicata, the Paris Agreement, focused on consensus-building, allows for voluntary and national targets.  Specific climate objectives are therefore more politically encouraged than legally linked.
Only the processes governing reporting and verification of these objectives are prescribed by international law. This structure is particularly notable for the United States – in the absence of legal targets for reduction or funding, the agreement is considered an “executive agreement and not a treaty”. Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty has received Senate approval, this new agreement does not require further laws of Congress for it to enter into force.  While the United States and Turkey are not part of the agreement, as countries have not declared their intention to leave the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue, as an “Annex 1” country, to prepare national communications and an annual greenhouse gas inventory.  View all Google Scholar citations for this article. 14 These commitments are called `nationally defined contributions` or `INDCs`. They are available on the UNFCCC Secretariat`s INDC portal. INDCs, as communicated by the parties, INDC, www4.unfccc.int/submissions/indc/Submission%20Pages/submissions.aspx (the last visit took place on 15 August 2016). The implementation of the agreement by all Member States is assessed every five years and the first evaluation will take place in 2023. The result will be used as a contribution to member States` new national contributions.  The inventory will not be one of the contributions/performance of each country, but of a collective analysis of what has been achieved and what remains to be done. While the expanded transparency framework is universal, as is the global inventory to be held every five years, the framework aims to provide “integrated flexibility” to distinguish between the capacities of developed and developing countries.
In this context, the Paris Agreement includes provisions to improve the capacity building framework.  The agreement recognises the different circumstances of some countries and notes in particular that the technical expert review for each country takes into account that country`s specific reporting capacity.  The agreement also develops an initiative to enhance transparency to help developing countries put in place the institutions and processes necessary to comply with the transparency framework.  Adaptation issues received more attention during the formation of the Paris Agreement. .